After seeing many video clips in the Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire film, students investigate the use of Punnett square worksheet to predict hereditary trait inheritance. The main goal of this lesson is to demonstrate concepts associated with genetics through direct, hands-on engagement based on the study theme, The Science behind Harry Potter. Students learn the names of chromosomes, the letters of the alphabet, and DNA base pairs by using a puzzle strategy known as the DNA code. As an alternative to traditional DNA tests, this method can be used to answer questions about genetic memory, the theory of evolution, and other scientific concepts.
Students trace their family tree by using the DNA test results as a basis for the argument that the majority of people in the world share a common genetic ancestry. Based on this argument, it follows that most people have one or more dominant genetic traits. Students are presented with four sets of results: the minor type, the major type, the recessive and dominant types. These results identify dominant and recessive genetic traits. In the first part of the lesson, students discover how these traits are determined by changes to the genetic code.
Students examine the DNA base pairings found between grandparents and either aunts, uncles, or grandparents. These base pairs show whether the traits are dominant or recessive. In the second part of the lesson, students examine how changes in the DNA base pairs between parents and children can affect the traits the offspring will inherit. Again, the major and minor types identify dominant and recessive traits. For example, the major type is used to identify whether individuals carry the dominant gene for major eye development.
A Punnett Square Worksheet That Students Can Use For Genealogy and Other Research Methods
Next, in the third section of the punnett square worksheet, students must solve for assumptions and relationships among traits. Assumptions determine whether an inherited trait is dominant or recessive. Relationship questions identify whether there is evidence of relationship between traits that cause traits to be passed on or whether the traits are independent. The fourth section provides explanations for why the results from the Punnett square worksheet show one type of trait or another. Finally, students can use the information contained in the worksheet to predict their results on other traits.
In this lesson, students use the results from the punnett square worksheet to infer whether there is enough evidence to prove a conclusion about a specific trait. Assumptions about genotype and phenotype determine whether the traits involved are dominant or recessive. The results of the analysis can be used to infer a genotype or an amino acid combination. Students can use the results from the Punnett square to infer the homology between breeds of cats or dogs. Finally, students can use the results to predict their results on mating behavior, body size, temperament, intelligence, and related traits.
In the second part of the tutorial, students are asked to select traits that they would like to test. They will then be given a word that represents each trait and a word that represents its genotype. Following the instructions of the tutorial, students will type in these words on the appropriate spaces on the punnett square worksheet and click the check box to indicate their answer. When they hit the “submit” button, the results of their selection are displayed on the worksheet. Based on the selections made in the previous step, they can either accept or reject the traits.
The tutorial concludes with a discussion about how the Punnett square worksheet helps students get to the results they want from genetic analysis. In this section, students are given another word and asked to type in the word to be compared to the corresponding space on the punnett square. This time, students have only two words to choose from: cat or dog. They can choose the desired comparison using the space above the typed word. Results will be displayed on the worksheet in a variety of different colors, allowing students to view the different possible combinations for genetic traits.
Finally, in the concluding part of the tutorial, students use the frequencyogram method to calculate the probability that a particular trait will occur in a specific population over a specific span of time. To do this, students use the frequencyogram, which is based on a graphical representation of the probability of randomly drawing a face from a square. To draw the face, students use the drawing program on their computer, or they can simply draw the face on their own.
Once they have drawn the face, they can determine whether the face will ever appear in a population and whether the frequency of its appearance will vary randomly over time. Students can then calculate the probability that they will meet the trait they are researching by connecting the shape of the face to the frequencyogram. Finally, students examine their results with the square graph to see which of their genetic results agree with the frequencyogram.